عنوان مقاله [English]
God has the attributes of action and His action originates from His essence. Everything else is Allah’s action. God is one, indivisible and unchangeable, but His action is multiple and changeable. Thus, the question arises that how could the changeable actions emanate from the stable and unchangeable divine essence. The relationship between the attributes of action and the divine essence must be explained in such a way that it does not result in imperfection and finiteness of God. Mulla Sadra, based on the principles of primacy of existence, graded unity, and the principle of indivisible reality, introduces divine attributes as hierarchical degrees. He explains the relationship between the attributes of action and the essence in a way that is in harmony with the unity and stability of God.
This paper, using the descriptive analytical approach, firstly, elaborates Mulla Sadra’s explanation of the relationship between the attributes of action and the divine essence. Following that, it analyses “the attributes of essence and the divine action”, “the state of emanation of action” and “hierarchical degrees of divine attributes in the verses and narrations”. The words of Allamah Majlisī and Fayḍ Kāshānī on this topic are also cited. Thereafter, Mulla Sadra’s viewpoint is investigated in light of religious texts. His viewpoint and the manner of explanation of the attributes and the state of the relationship of attributes of action and essence can also be derived from the verses and narrations.