عنوان مقاله [English]
This question has always been drawing the attention of philosophers to study what factor is responsible to make the body from elements giving it specific function. Not only in the ancient physics but also in modern science, this question has been of particular importance. Modern biology introduces the primary stem cells as the origins of tissues with sheer competence to create different organs. Nonetheless, the answer to the above old question is not to be found in science only, because due to the limits of science, there are many unknown issues as to how one cell might be transformed into different organs with different functions. Those unknown issues made most theologians and illuminist philosophers consider some immaterial substance responsible for making such organs. In contrast, the peripatetic philosophers hold the form-giving faculty of the spirit in the embryo (nature) responsible to do so. Unanswered questions and ambiguities in the peripatetic theory made Fakhr al-Din al-Razi come up with the theory that the process of making different organs is under the influence of the soul of the mother. His theory cleared up some of those problems, it failed to answer all of them, though. By the advent of transcendent theosophy and trans-substantial motion, a new hope reconcilable with modern science sprang to solve those questions.