عنوان مقاله [English]
That how Allah knows things is one of the most complicated issue of philosophy. In their reference to the principle of causality and through the imprinted forms, peripatetic philosophers have explained this kind of divine knowledge. In their resort to the theory of sovereign encompassment and that of the illuminative relation of the Light-of-all-lights to things, the illumination philosophers went to hold that divine knowledge is intuitive and the very realities of things are the direct objects of Allah’s knowledge. And at last, through the simple-in-nature rule and absoluteness of being, the Sadraian Philosophers have demonstrated Allah’s knowledge of things.
Religious texts highlight the divine knowledge of things through the absoluteness of the Essence "He is the First, the Last, the Manifest, the Hidden” and “He knows everything", His Sovereign encompassment "He is with you wherever are", and that all things are present before His presence "And all of them will indeed be present before Us".
In the following research, the author has shed light on the how-evolution of divine knowledge in peripatetic, illuminative, and Sadraian schools, and then come to compare their final views to the related religious texts as to the stations of essence and action.
The conclusion is that intellectual observations in divine knowledge are confirmed by the revealed doctrines; that is to say reason and revelation are in particular agreement on the issue.