عنوان مقاله [English]
The explanation on how plurality has come out of the One Almighty has passed A process of several phases. First peripatetic philosophy spoke of the ten intellects and nine celestial spheres which mediate vertically between Allah Almighty and the material world. Then, Suhravardi elaborately spoke of both vertical and horizontal intellects, while the latter mediate between the former and the plurality of this world. Finally, all those discussions left their space to the extending existence theory in Sadraian philosophy, driving a great evolution in the issue.
In the Qur'an and hadith, however, some mediators between Allah Almighty and the material world are mentioned revealing similarities with the philosophers such as the unity and simplicity of Allah, the first emanation and creation, the Throne, angels and holy Gabriel to whom the extending existence, Platonic Ideas, and the Active Intellect might be applied respectively. There are, nonetheless, some differences such as that the number of mediators do not match that of the intellects, and the creation of all things from water.
Our method here is to clarify and explain the views of Muslim philosophers through their texts and grasp the apparent meaning of the Qur'an and hadith hermeneutically.