عنوان مقاله [English]
Primary and common predication are two of the most important topics in the Transcendent Wisdom [of Mulla Sadra]. This is true to the extent that Mulla Sadra solved many philosophical paradoxes using these concepts. Of course, it is also possible to find traces of these ideas in the teachings of the previous philosophers. Nevertheless, he was able to explain the different types of predication in clearer terms. However, it is important to take note of the fact that he only took primary and common predication as conditions of the subject or the predication [of propositions]. This is while it is also possible to consider these as being conditions of the predicate [of propositions]. Keeping this in mind, the predicate ‘by means of primary predication’ refers to the concept of the predicate while the predicate ‘by means of common predication’ refers to the external reality of the predicate.
The late Mulla Sadra – and following him, the late Allamah Tabatabai – attempted to answer the famous objection to [the theory of] mental existence by saying that primary or common predication are conditions of the nature of the predication. They were of the belief that if we say that mental existence is a quality of the soul then this is by common predication. However, if we say that mental existence falls outside the categories this is by primary predication. However, a proper examination shows us that the thing that actually resolves the problem is primary predication and that common predication is actually only the condition of the predicate. This means that mental existence is united with the concept of the category [that exists] in the external world. It is also united with the external reality of the quality of the soul. This implies that it belongs to the category of the quality of the soul and that it is one with the concept of substance.
Of course, this unification with the meaning of ‘substance’ is from the point of view that the mental picture is a mirror for the external world. This means that the meaning of ‘substance’ and the meaning of ‘man’ relate one thing, i.e. the quiddity and essence of man. Otherwise, meanings are different.
In order to explain this matter, in the end of the article it has been mentioned that it is possible that the late Mulla Sadra and Allamah Tabatabai were referring to the same. However, they assumed that this difference stemmed from fact that the condition of the predicate [of the proposition] was primary or common. This is while, the idea that the condition of the predicate is primary or common is the answer to the problem.