عنوان مقاله [English]
To find a foundation for knowledge is among the important discussions in epistemology, a foundation that is self-warranted, not acquired from anything else. Referring knowledge by acquaintance to knowledge by presence is a foundationalist theory that is underlined and explained by Allama Tabatabaei. This theory which has been furthered explained by Martyr Mutahhari, his disciple, has many epistemic implications.
One of such references is the reference of philosophical concepts such as the concepts of cause and effect to knowledge by presence. These concepts were considered as mental constructions by Hume and mental frameworks by Kant, leading thus epistemology to skepticism.
By referring these concepts to knowledge by presence, they were able to deem the statements made out of these concepts as self-warranted and objective. The principle of causality and self-evident truths are however defendable, as mentioned by Farabi, without relying on such references. This is of course an independent research work.
Another instance of reference is the reference of outwardly sensible things to knowledge by presence. It includes two things: 1) error is not in sense perception but in application (of sense perception) 2) to attain correspondence sensible things are in need of explanation, implying that one cannot definitely say that something exists in the external world and has certain qualities as soon as one senses it.