عنوان مقاله [English]
What is understood from the very possibility of knowledge and cognitive realism is the perceptions whose essences reveal the objects known. However, by introspection we may find some mental ideas whose essences fail to reveal anything. In their article, the authors mainly try to propose an ontological explanation of how mentally-constructed perceptions and ideas reveal something in the framework of the criterion of there-being [in contrast to the criterion of demonstration] of knowledge. Having reviewed the issues and suggestions related to the nature of mental ideas and their examination such as the theory of apparition, capability of revealing, and the explanation of the essence of revealing, the authors have tried to propose one single framework for the process of revealing of true and mentally-constructed perceptions and ideas. Their answer is that mentally-constructed ideas do not stand in line with true perceptions, but come after them in a hierarchical order. By virtual widening the scope of the referents of true perceptions, we may encounter semi-entities that partially resemble the objects of true perceptions. In this proposal, both “mental-construction” and “partial resemblance” play their role in the process of none-essential revealing; however, there is no partial resemblance between a “mental image” and the “so-called object known”. Rather, there is partial resemblance between “real referent” and “so-called referent”. A mental image reveals by essence the true object to be revealed, but in comparison to the so-called object known its revealing is none-essential.